Ann Holloway
(dob - )
Born in the United States
Years of Discovery: 1950s


MeaslesVaccineTeamKey Technician in the Development of the Measles Vaccine

Ann Holloway had a bird's eye view of measles research. A longtime associate of John Enders, he eventually came to see Holloway as his "most able technician and associate." Prior to her work on the measles vaccine, Holloway helped Enders develop the polio vaccine, for which Enders won the Nobel Prize. Holloway teamed with Dr. Arne Svedmyr to develop a diagnostic tool, known as a compliment fixation test, to assess the activity of polio antibodies. As other team members went their separate ways, Holloway stayed on and joined Enders in pursuing the development of a measles vaccine. After they successfully isolated the measles virus they began the arduous task of passaging the virus through human cells. The process was painstakingly slow but, in the end, her persistence paid off. Holloway's contributions were critical to the successful development of the live-virus vaccine.This accomplishment was more satisfying, and more socially significant, than his previous Nobel Prize winning work on the poliomyelitis virus according to John Enders. 

Measles is caused by a virus and is one of the most contagious diseases known. The virus normally grows in the cells lining the back of the throat and those lining the lungs. The first sign of infection is a high fever lasting one to seven days. During this initial stage the patient may develop multiple symptoms, including a runny nose, cough, red and watery eyes, and small white spots inside the cheeks. A rash develops after several days, typically beginning on the face and upper neck, and then spreading to the hands and feet. Poorly nourished children are at an increased risk of contracting a severe case of measles, especially those who have a vitamin A deficiency or whose immune system is compromised. Childhood deaths are usually caused by the complications associated with measles. The most serious complications include blindness, an infection of the brain and spinal cord (encephalitis), severe diarrhea, ear infections and severe respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, which is the most common cause of death associated with measles. Due to widespread use of Hilleman's vaccine, U.S. cases range from the 10s to the low 1,000s.  Vaccination has played the major role, with an estimated 85% of the world's population now getting a measles vaccine in childhood.  As a result, there has been a significant reduction in estimated global measles deaths. In 2000 it was estimated that  6,000,000 people a year died from measles, mostly children.  Now in 2021 that number is down to 120,000, all due to the measles vaccine.  About 85% of all the children in the world now receive a measles vaccination.

Written by science writer, Tim Anderson


Lives Saved: Over 130,000,000


Snippets
Measles in the U.S. Timeline
1958  Measles Cases 763,000
1963  Measles Vaccine Developed
2000  Cases of Measles 0
2010s Lower Vaccination Rates
2019 Measles Cases 1,044


Vaccines are Ubiquitous & Omnipresent Throughout Our Lives
It is bizarre that vaccines are controversial, when virtually everyone has had vaccines. The average person born today may get 70+ vaccines in their lifetime. 

  • There are 31 childhood vaccines (counting booster shots). Over 90% of people have received some of these vaccines.

Virtually everyone constantly benefits from vaccines

  • Did you know that all beef, poultry, and pork you eat comes from vaccinated animals?
  • And that all horses, dogs, cats, and zoo animals are vaccinated?
  • Who wants to live in a world where you can’t pet your friends’ dog because it may not have been vaccinated, and may have rabies?

Key Contributors
John Enders
Maurice Hilleman
Samuel Katz
Thomas Peebles
Anna Mitus
Kevin McCarthy
Ann Holloway
Milan Milovanovic


Links to More About the Scientist & the Science
Ann Holloway's Wikipedia Page
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ann_Holloway

Landmark Academic Paper

Measles Virus: A Summary of Experiments Concerned with Isolation, Properties and Behavior. American Journal of Public Health, Vol47, No. 3, March1957. John Enders, Thomas Peebles, Kevin McCarthy, Milo Milovanovic, Anna Mitus, and Ann Holloway
https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.47.3.275

A journal article on the development of the measles vaccine, co-authored by Holloway
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/pagerender.fcgi?artid=1522581&pageindex=1#page