“Then, suddenly, it hit me,” Nalin says. “Oral therapy had to work, it was the methodology that was the problem - fluid losses had to be replaced with oral solution volumes that matched or slightly exceeded the volume of losses. I remember a chill going up my spine when I realized this, together with the overwhelming sense of how important this would be to the countless patients who were continuing to be at risk of death in remote, resource-poor affected areas around the globe. And I also sensed that anything that would work in cholera would certainly work in the host of less severe, though often fatal, acute watery non-cholera diarrheas.”
“It looks like a miracle.”
As he immersed himself in the information “it became apparent that something very funny was going on with the data.” Sommer said to himself, “Gosh, what in the world is going on here?” Children who had night blindness seemed to disappear from the study. They wound up in the “don’t know” category far more than did kids who had normal eyes. What happened to those children with their big eyes? Why did they leave the study?
“In these experiments the tissue culture method was employed with uncertain results. But the conviction was gained that it represented a basic tool for the study of viruses of which the possible applications were almost unlimited.” (Enders discussing his research in the 1930s).
“My fly cage was so toxic after a short period that even after very thorough cleaning of the cage, untreated flies, on touching the walls, fell to the floor. I could carry on my trials only after dismantling the cage, having it thoroughly cleaned and after that leaving it for about one month in the open air.”
“A remarkable regularity appeared in the behavior of the 22 blood specimens examined. If one excludes the fetal placental blood, which did not produce agglutination…, in most cases the sera could be divided into three groups: In several cases (group A) the serum reacted on the corpuscles of another group (B), but not on those of group A, whereas the A corpuscles are again influenced in the same manner by serum B. In the third group (C) the serum agglutinates the corpuscles of A and B, while the C corpuscles are not affected by sera of A and B….. In ordinary speech, it can be said that in these cases at least two different kinds of agglutinins (antibodies) are present: some in A, others in B, and both together in C.”
- Karl Landsteiner in his remarkable 1901 paper: “Uber Agglutinationsercheinungen Normalen Menschlichen Blutes” – “On Agglutination Phenomena of Normal Human Blood,”
“Finally, it must be mentioned that the reported observations allow us to explain the variable results in therapeutic transfusions of human blood.”