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Jude Interview

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James Jude

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James Jude - January 2010
On his crucial role in the development of Cardiopulomonary Resuscitation

Jude at home in his study

Let's Start - Questions about Your Lifesaving Discovery
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Your Discovery:

1% Inspiration
99% Perspiration

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt How many hours a week were you working when you made your most important discoveries? 


ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Where do you have the best ideas? For example, at work, at home, on the way to work, in the shower?

At work

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt At what time of day do you think most clearly and have the most creative ideas?


ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Did the insight(s) that led to your discovery occur in an instant, on a specific day – or did it unfold over time?
Describe any ‘aha’ moment.

Occurred gradually, on visit to the lab at JHH (Johns Hopkins Hospital) from living in Bethesda MD.

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt When did you first realize the immense worldwide impact your discovery would have?

Never did, but from subsequent meetings, it became evident that it was a likely beneficial development to many.  Please see: “Personal Reminiscences of the Origin and History of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)” Am Jr. of Cardiology 92:956-963 October 15,2003.

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt For many people, fleeting images come to mind when asked to remember an event. What images come to your mind when you think back about your discovery (both the moments of insight and the years of research)?

The loss of my clothing (I always changed to scrubs) on a weekend visit to the lab at JHH (Johns Hopkins Hospital).

Jude with his sister, Monica

Questions about Your Personal Scientific Career
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Describe your office/desk. Is it tidy or messy? What personal/sentimental items do you keep there?

Messy - No personal items.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt When did science first spark your imagination and arouse your passion? 

Work with F. John Lewis while in medical school. Followed by acceptance to JHH
(Johns Hopkins Hospital) for internship.

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Who is your scientific (or other) hero and why?

All researchers who are doing this for mankind.  Not for those who are greedy and want something to patent, whose objective in life is to win a Nobel Prize.

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What's the coolest thing about your work – what excites you the most?

Helping others and their gratitude. 

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What thing most frustrates you about your work that, if you could avoid it, might make you a better scientist?


Questions about Your Childhood and Schooling
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Describe your community and social environment, growing up.

Small town in Minnesota, a lot like Lake Wobegon.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What was delightful about your childhood?

My parents who helped others to their detriment.  My Father gave credit to local farmers  (He had an old fashioned grocery/dry goods store) but his creditors were not so friendly and he suffered bankruptcy.  The only reason we had a house (small bungalow) was that it was in my Mother’s name.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What was challenging about your childhood?

Growing up in the depression.  Hoboes would come to the door and always got something to eat but no money.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What teacher most influenced you?

Miss Hamm who made us write an essay on what we wanted to do with our life.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What was your very first paying job?

Projectionist in local movie theater.  $1/night but I got to see the movie.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What message would you pass on to today’s youth?

Work hard for others.  Preserve the environment.  We are, in earth time, a blink of the eye, the earth said to be 2.5 billion years old.

One or two paragraph length stories often provide great insight into people
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Please share one or more profound or moving occurrences in your science career.

The heart restarting after being stopped for intracardiac heart surgery.

Just for Fun
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What are your favorite non-scientific interests and activities?

Computer and access to the Internet
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Describe your Favorite:

Instrument: Clarinet

Science periodical/journal:
Consumers Reports
Artist and/or specific work of art: Moran and other early American Artists
Music and/or song:
Old works only
Gone With the Wind
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt If you were given one million dollars, what would you do with it?

Give it to Preservation or to JHH (Johns Hopkins Hospital)
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What three items would you take to a deserted island? (Besides survival items):

Cell phone, computer, candle (and matches)
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt On average, how many hours a week do you spend on:

Personal Things: 10
Other significant parts of your life (please name):
grandchildren, wife, yard (plants)
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt How many hours a night do you normally sleep?

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt To be well rested, how many hours a night of sleep do you need?

ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What is one thing about you that people would be most surprised to find out?

I have been married to the same person for 58 years.  We have raised 7 children and have 13 grandchildren.

Now a pause for some more Mundane Questions
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Date of Birth: 06/07/1928
Birthplace:  Maple Lake, MN (USA)
Your parents and siblings names: Richard, Elizabeth, Monica, Victor, Bill.  The boys are all deceased.
Current residence: Coral Gables, FL (USA)
Current position: Retired.  Clinical professor Univ of Miami School of Medicine (USA)
Field: MD - continue to be licensed in FL
Spouse/Partner: Sallye Garrigan Jude
Children, including year of birth:Roderick (1952), John (1954), Cecilia Jude Prahl (1956), Victoria Jude Steele (1958), Peter (1960), Robert (1961). Christopher (1964)

Academic and Professional Experience
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Key Published articles describing your remarkable discovery:

See bibliography in Am Jr of Cardiology article above.

Questions about being a Lifesaving Scientist
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What is the current most pressing problem that if solved, could save the most lives?

Cure for Cancer
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Going forward, what is the most important thing scientists can do to save the most lives?

Every life is valuable, once conceived.  We must, however, have a sustainable environment to hold them.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt If you were to head up a foundation or the NIH, how would you change the way funding is granted?

Give it to hospitals and clinics that are nearer the problems.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Should the federal government devote more money to healthcare research (how much)?

Whatever it takes, money will not solve our problems, education and ethics will, however.

Questions about the Current State of Science
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What disturbs you about the current direction of scientific research and discovery? 

Too dependent on funding.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What else concerns you?

Greed and the desire to be a Nobel Laureate.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What would you change about the way science is taught, from elementary school through the university level?

Pay the teachers more.  Reward, not monetarily, the best students. Teach more civics and sustainability with our environment.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What is one thing not taught in school that you believe should be?

Civics, Government.

Fun Philosophical Questions
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What would you like your tombstone to say?

He contributed to the “Dash”- the time between birth and death.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What’s your motto?

As per Ulysses, “To Strive, to Seek, to Find but Not to Yield”
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Imagine yourself on a leisurely journey with plenty of time for long conversation. Which famous people would you like to accompany you, and why?

My wife who would expound on sustainability; my children and grandchildren, who with their children will be our scientists and leaders in the future.

Serious Philosophical Questions
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What was the most meaningful experience(s) in your life and why?

Attending the funerals of such great people as Dan Paul (atty) and Marjory Stoneman Douglas (writer about the Everglades)
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What is the meaning of life?

A brief period on this planet for which we should leave something other than family.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt Are you religious? Expound:

Yes, Catholic, but everyone should believe in something and thus all should have a religion.  We will all go sooner or later, even the Pharaohs found that out and their successors were the grave robbers.  In 2.5 billion years there probably have been previously great civilizations.  There is a location in Yellowstone where there are standing petrified trees.  Great, but there are eleven layers of them.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt You are extremely intelligent and knowledgeable.  What two suggestions do you have for students to prepare them for life?  

A good education and a good religious basis.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt What suggestion do you have for world leaders? 

Remember they are here only a short time.

Questions from The Edge
Each year, a website named The ( asks leading scientists and intellectuals a single question, and then posts each fascinating answer on their website. Please answer two (or more) of the questions listed.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt The Edge Annual Question — 2008
What have you changed your mind about? Why?
When thinking changes your mind, that's philosophy.  When God changes your mind, that's faith. When facts change your mind, that's science.  Science is based on evidence. What happens when the data change? How have scientific findings or arguments changed your mind?

That we are here on our planet a very short time and, purely by chance, there are others, in this Universe, like us, probably ahead and also behind.  Keeping this in mind should make us humble.
That we are but a grain of sand on the beach, the Universe is unending, and overall there must be some control, i.e. a God.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt The Edge Annual Question — 2006
What is your dangerous idea?
The history of science is replete with discoveries that were considered socially, morally, or emotionally dangerous in their time; the Copernican and Darwinian revolutions are the most obvious. What idea, not necessarily of your origin, is dangerous not because it is assumed to be false, but because it might be true?

False is that Mars and other planets were not like us at one time, but, as the Sun has cooled slightly, they have eroded and life has been lost.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt The Edge Annual Question — 2005
What do you believe is true even though you cannot prove it?
Great minds can sometimes guess the truth before they have either the evidence or arguments for it (Diderot called it having the "esprit de divination"). What do you believe is true even though you cannot prove it?
That there is life like ours elsewhere in this Universe.  
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt The Edge Annual Question — 2004
What is your law?
There is some bit of wisdom, some rule of nature, some law-like pattern, either grand or small, that you've noticed in the universe that might as well be named after you. Gordon Moore has one; Johannes Kepler and Michael Faraday, too. So does Murphy. Since you are so bright, you probably have at least two you can articulate. Send me two laws based on your empirical work and observations you would not mind having tagged with your name. Stick to science and to those scientific areas where you have expertise.
None so legitimate as those named.
ErleFlaskOutline1_tilt The Edge Annual Question — 2001
What Questions Have Disappeared?

The size of the Universe.