A Community of Rambunctious Scholars Celebrating People
Who Have Made Lifesaving Discoveries And Encouraging
Students and Politicians to Read 1000 Science Stories!

Lifesaving Scientists - A to Z

Anderson, Porter
Avery, Mary Ellen
Babes, Aurel
Banting, Frederick
Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise
Belleau, Bernard
Bellini, Francesco
Best, Charles
Black, James
Blalock, Alfred
Blumberg, Baruch
Bohlin, Nils
Borlaug, Norman
Bosch, Carl
Briend, Andre
Cash, Richard
Chain, Ernst
Clements, John
Collier, Leslie
Collip, James
Craven, Lawrence
Demikhov, Vladimir
Dionne, Gervais
Druker, Brian
Ehrlich, Paul
Elam, James
Eldering, Grace
Elion, Gertrude
Enders, John
Endo, Akira
Enslow, Linn
Finn, Ronald
Fleming, Alexander
Florey, Howard
Foege, William
Francis Jr, Thomas
Fujiwara, Tetsuro
Gershon-Cohen, Jacob
Gibson, Paul
Greatbatch, Wilson
Gros, Charles
Gruentzig, Andreas
Haber, Fritz
Heatley, Norman
Heimlich, Henry
Hennekens, Charles
Hilleman, Maurice
Hirschhorn, Norbert
Hitchings, George
Holloway, Ann
Ismach, Aaron
Jenner, Edward
Jude, James
Katz, Samuel
Kendrick, Pearl
Keys, Ancel
Kitasato, Shibasaburo
Knickerbocker, G. Guy
Koch, Robert
Kolesov, Vasilii
Kolff, Willem
Kountz, Samuel
Kouwenhoven, William
Landsteiner, Karl
Leborgne, Raul
Lewisohn, Richard
Lister, Joseph
Lydon, Nicholas
Macleod, John
McCarthy, Kevin
Millman, Irving
Milovanovic, Milan
Mitus, Anna
Montagnier, Luc
Muller, Paul
Murray, Kenneth
Nalin, David
Nguyen-Ga, Nghe
Papanikolaou, Georgios
Pasteur, Louis
Patrick, Edward
Peebles, Thomas
Phillips, Robert
Ramon, Gaston
Robbins, Frederick
Robbins, John
Rubin, Benjamin
Sabin, Albert
Sachar, David
Safar, Peter
Salk, Jonas
Salomon, Albert
Sawyers, Charles
Schneerson, Rachel
Scribner, Belding
Smith, David
Snow, John
Sommer, Alfred
Styblo, Karel
Theiler, Max
Thomas, Vivien
Traut, Herbert
Vogel, Walter
von Behring, Emil
Warren, Stafford
Weller, Thomas
Wiener, Alexander
Wolman, Abel
Zoeller, Christian

Professions

Biochemist

Baruch Blumberg
Discovered the antigen that causes hepatitis B; co-developed the vaccine to fight against it.

Ernst Chain
He refined penicillin, allowing for mass production of the world's first antibiotic.

James "Bert" Collip
Developed insulin into a useable human drug.

Gertrude Elion
Her  Rational Drug Design revolutionized pharmaceutical research.

Norman Heatley
He engineered the methods to grow sufficient quantities of penicillin for testing and refinement.

Nicholas Lydon
Developed Gleevec, a new-generation drug that targeted leukemia's mutated gene.

Nghe Nguyen-Ga
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.

Biologist

Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin, after returning from vacation and finding an unusual mold growing in his culture plates.

Ancel Keys
First scientist to link diet and cholesterol.

Kenneth Murray
Developed the vaccine against hepatitis B - his was the first genetically engineered vaccine.

Gaston Ramon
His ingenious techniques allowed diphtheria and tetanus vaccines to be used safely worldwide.

Chemist

Bernard Belleau
Invented new AIDS drug with far fewer side effects.

Francesco Bellini
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.

Carl Bosch
His synthetic fertilizer is the single most important product affecting the world's population.

John Clements
Completed research on surfactants that saved babies with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Gervais Dionne
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.

Linn Enslow
Used chlorine to purify water, the most significant public health advance of the 20th century.

Fritz Haber
His synthetic fertilizer is the single most important product affecting the world's population.

George Hitchings
His  Rational Drug Design revolutionized pharmaceutical research.

Samuel Kountz
Before Kountz' technique few kidney transplant patients survived.

Paul Muller
Muller's DDT rid the American South of malaria.

Louis Pasteur
A scientific genius, founder of Germ Theory, Vaccination, Microbiology and Pasteurization.

Engineer

Nils Bohlin
His three-point safety belt set  the standard for auto safety.

Wilson Greatbatch
Implantable Heart Pacemakers are possible because of his groundbreaking work.

Aaron Ismach
Developed the Jet Injector, capable of vaccinating 1,000 people per hour.

G. Guy Knickerbocker
Proved that chest compressions, using the hands, were sufficient to extend life in emergencies.

William Kouwenhoven
Proved that chest compressions, using the hands, were sufficient to extend life in emergencies.

Edward Patrick
He is co-discoverer of the lifesaving Heimlich Maneuver.

Abel Wolman
Used chlorine to purify water, the most significant public health advance of the 20th century.

Immunologist

Paul Ehrlich
A legend in immunology - Ehrlich developed diphtheria therapy.

Ronald Finn
His discovery protected infants from death caused by Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN).

Edward Jenner
Jenner gave birth to the concept of vaccination.

Karl Landsteiner
Landsteiner's discovery led to the first safe blood transfusions.

Richard Lewisohn
His anticoagulation technique made widespread blood transfusions feasible.

Alexander Wiener
Discovered the critical Rh factor in blood.

Laboratory

Gertrude Elion
Her  Rational Drug Design revolutionized pharmaceutical research.

Ann Holloway
Was John Enders' "most able technician and associate" in the search for a measles vaccine.

Vivien Thomas
His revolutionary technique saved babies with defective hearts.


Literary

John Enders
Masters in English
Enders revolutionized virology, even though he began this pursuit after the age of fifty.


Norbert Hirschhorn
Prize Winning Poet
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.


Microbiologist

Porter Anderson
Hib disease in the U.S. has declined by 99 percent since the introduction of his Hib vaccine.

Grace Eldering
Eldering survived the deadly whooping cough disease at age five.

Akira Endo
Endo's statin drugs are used by millions to lower cholesterol.

Pearl Kendrick
Kendrick was tenacious in her pursuit of a cure for whooping cough.

Shibasaburo Kitasato
"On loan to Germany," developed first effective therapies against diphtheria and tetanus.

Robert Koch
An ingenious innovator, Koch isolated the bacterium that causes tuberculosis.

Kevin McCarthy
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.

Irving Millman
His expertise in microbiology was critical in co-developing the hepatitis B vaccine.

Frederick Robbins
With Enders, Revolutionized virology - did pivotal early polio vaccine work.

John Robbins
Made the breakthrough discovery that allowed the Hib vaccine to protect children under 18 months.

Benjamin Rubin
Created the bifurcated needle, a simple device making worldwide vaccination possible.

Nutritionist

Norman Borlaug
Borlaug's disease-resistant wheat feeds millions.

Andre Briend
Developed Plumpy'nut, a calorie-dense eanut-based food used to fight famine.


Alfred Sommer
Sommer's vitamin A treatment saves lives for less than five cents per year.

Odd Jobs

Charles Best
Baseball Player
Joined Banting's insulin research team based on the flip of a coin.

John Enders
Forest Fire Spotter
Real Estate Agent
Enders revolutionized virology, even though he began this pursuit after the age of fifty.

Bill Foege
Forest Fire Fighter
Foege's "surveillance and containment" strategy led to the eradication of smallpox.


Vivien Thomas
Janitor
His revolutionary technique saved babies with defective hearts.


Pathology

Karl Landsteiner
Landsteiner's discovery led to the first safe blood transfusions.

Georgios Papanikolaou
His Pap Smear test has saved millions of lives.

Albert Sabin
Developed the "live" polio vaccine, given on a sugar cube, used throughout the world.

Physician - Discovery Pre-1960

Mary Ellen Avery
Her crucial discovery led the fight against  Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Aurel Babes
Revolutionized the field of cervical cancer detection.

Charles Best
Joined Banting's insulin research team based on the flip of a coin.

John Clements
Completed research on surfactants that saved babies with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Leslie Collier
Perfected the freeze-drying method of producing the vaccine, making mass vaccination possible.

Lawrence Craven
Showed aspirin busts blood clots and saves lives.

James Elam
Spearheaded the development of Resusci-Anne, a life-like manikin to teach CPR.


Howard Florey
Florey's team created the very first antibiotic-penicillin.

Jacob Gershon-Cohen
First advocate for using mammograms to detect breast cancer.

Paul Gibson
Laid the foundation for "an aspirin a day keeps the cardiologist away" treatment.

Charles Gros
His techniques greatly enhanced mammogram's effectiveness.

Samuel Katz
Tested vaccine on himself to prove it was safe.

Robert Koch
An ingenious innovator, Koch isolated the bacterium that causes tuberculosis.

Willem Kolff
Kolff is the Father of Artificial Organs.

Raul Leborgne
His breast compression technique enhanced mammogram images.

J.J.R. (John) Macleod
He was the scientist who named insulin.

Milan Milovanovic
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.

Thomas Peebles
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.

Frederick Robbins
With Enders, Revolutionized virology - did pivotal early polio vaccine work.

David Sachar
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.

Peter Safar
The Father of CPR, taught regular people to be lifesavers.

John Snow
The "Father of Epidemiology;" also among the first to use anesthesiology for surgery.

Max Theiler
Refined the Yellow Fever vaccine, making it possible to mass produce the lifesaving treatment.

Herbert Traut
Developed a critical test to detect cervical cancer.

Walter Vogel
He refined mammograms to enhance breast cancer diagnosis.

Emil von Behring
Originally intent on the priesthood, von Behring developed therapies against diphtheria and tetanus.

Stafford Warren
A pioneer in breast cancer surgery, using fluoroscopes to distinguish cancerous tissue.

Alexander Wiener
Discovered the critical Rh factor in blood.

Christian Zoeller
Developed the vaccine to prevent and control tetanus.


Physician - Discovery Post-1960

Bernard Belleau
Invented new AIDS drug with far fewer side effects.

James Black
His beta blockers transformed heart and blood pressure treatments.

Richard Cash
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.

Brian Druker
Developed Gleevec, a new-generation drug that targeted leukemia's mutated gene.

Bill Foege
Foege's "surveillance and containment" strategy led to the eradication of smallpox.

Tetsuro Fujiwara
Developed a successful surfactant delivery method to treat Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Andreas Gruentzig
Developed angioplasty - starting with homemade materials at his kitchen table.

Charles Hennekens
Led the first significant clinical trial showing aspirin prevents heart attacks.

Norbert Hirschhorn
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.

Samuel Kountz
Before Kountz' technique few kidney transplant patients survived.

David Nalin
Nalin's key insight led to a "simple solution" that has saved millions.

Edward Patrick
He is co-discoverer of the lifesaving Heimlich Maneuver.

Robert Phillips
His early experiments laid the groundwork for Oral Rehydration Therapy.

John Robbins
Made the breakthrough discovery that allowed the Hib vaccine to protect children under 18 months.

Charles Sawyers
Developed the next generation drug, Sprycel, for patients who resistant to Gleevec.

Rachel Schneerson
Her vaccines fought Hib disease, the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children.

Belding Scribner
Made long term dialysis possible with his shunt for kidney patients.

David Smith
Hib disease in the U.S. has declined by 99 percent since the introduction of his Hib vaccine.

Alfred Sommer
Sommer's vitamin A treatment saves lives for less than five cents per year.

Karel Styblo
Developed revolutionary Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) protocol to fight epidemics.


Surgeon

Frederick Banting
Banting's discovery led to the mass production of insulin.

Alfred Blalock
His revolutionary technique saved babies with defective hearts.

Vladimir Demikhov
His experiments made coronary artery bypass surgery possible.

Henry Heimlich
He  is the discoverer of the lifesaving Heimlich Maneuver.

James Jude
Proved that chest compressions, using the hands, were sufficient to extend life in emergencies.

Vasilii Kolesov
First to use sutures in coronary artery bypass surgery.

Richard Lewisohn
His anticoagulation technique made widespread blood transfusions feasible.

Joseph Lister
Lister was the "Father of Modern Surgery," admonishing his colleagues to "Wash your hands!"

Albert Salomon
He was the very first to use x-rays to study breast cancer.

Vivien Thomas
His revolutionary technique saved babies with defective hearts.

Virologist

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Identified the virus that led to the HIV test.

John Enders
Enders revolutionized virology, even though he began this pursuit after the age of fifty.

Thomas Francis Jr
Influenza and polio vaccine - taught Jonas Salk critical vaccine development technique.

Maurice Hilleman
Reformulated Enders' vaccine, making it commercially available worldwide.

Ann Holloway
Was John Enders' "most able technician and associate" in the search for a measles vaccine.

Anna Mitus
Mitus' expertise was critical in the development of the measles vaccine.

Luc Montagnier
Developed the blood test to detect HIV, the underlying cause of AIDS.

Jonas Salk
Developed the first vaccine to fight against the epidemic killer polio virus.

Thomas Weller
With Enders, Revolutionized virology - did pivotal early polio vaccine work.


 
How many lives do our
Lifesavers save as our Lifesavers do save lives?!


Over 1 Billion

Scientist Lives Saved
1 Fritz Haber
(Synthetic Fertilizer)
2,720,000,000
2 Carl Bosch
(Synthetic Fertilizer)
2,720,000,000
3 Karl Landsteiner
(Blood Groups)
1,094,000,000
4 Richard Lewisohn
(Blood Transfusions)
1,094,000,000

Over 100 Million

Scientist Lives Saved
5 Edward Jenner
(Vaccination - Smallpox)
530,000,000
6 Norman Borlaug
(Green Revolution - Wheat)
259,000,000
7 Linn Enslow
(Chlorination of Water)
177,000,000
8 Abel Wolman
(Chlorination of Water)
177,000,000
9 William Foege
(Vaccination Method - Smallpox Eradication)
131,000,000
10 Leslie Collier
(Freeze-dried Vaccine - Smallpox Eradication)
131,000,000
11 Benjamin Rubin
(Bifurcated Needle - Smallpox Eradication)
131,000,000
12 Aaron Ismach
(Jet Injector Gun - Smallpox Eradication)
131,000,000
13 John Enders
(Polio & Measles Vaccine)
120,000,000
14 Maurice Hilleman
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000
15 Ann Holloway
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000
16 Samuel Katz
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000
17 Kevin McCarthy
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000
18 Milan Milovanovic
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000
19 Anna Mitus
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000
20 Thomas Peebles
(Measles Vaccine)
118,000,000

Over 50 Million

Scientist Lives Saved
21 Howard Florey
(Penicillin Drug)
82,000,000
22 Ernst Chain
(Penicillin Drug)
82,000,000
23 Norman Heatley
(Penicillin Drug)
82,000,000
24 Alexander Fleming
(Penicillin Mold)
82,000,000
25 Gaston Ramon
(Diphtheria and Tetanus Vaccine)
60,000,000
26 David Nalin
(Oral Rehydration Therapy)
54,000,000
27 Richard Cash
(Oral Rehydration Therapy)
54,000,000
28 Norbert Hirschhorn
(Oral Rehydration Therapy)
54,000,000
29 Robert Phillips
(Oral Rehydration Therapy)
54,000,000
30 David Sachar
(Oral Rehydration Therapy)
54,000,000
31 Christian Zoeller
(Tetanus Vaccine)
52,000,000

Over 15 Million

Scientist Lives Saved
32 Paul Ehrlich
(Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxin)
42,000,000
33 Shibasaburo Kitasato
(Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxin)
42,000,000
34 Emil von Behring
(Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxin)
42,000,000
35 Paul Muller
(DDT)
21,200,000
36 Frederick Banting
(Insulin)
16,400,000
37 Charles Best
(Insulin)
16,400,000
38 John Macleod
(Insulin)
16,400,000
39 James "Bert" Collip
(Insulin)
16,400,000

Over 5 Million

Scientist Lives Saved
40 Andreas Gruentzig
(Angioplasty)
15,400,000
41 Pearl Kendrick
(Whooping Cough Vaccine)
13,700,000
42 Grace Eldering
(Whooping Cough Vaccine)
13,700,000
43 Belding Scribner
(Scribner Shunt)
8,595,000
44 Willem Kolff
(Kidney Dialysis)
8,595,000
45 Wilson Greatbatch
(Pacemaker)
8,305,000
46 Karel Styblo
(TB & AIDS Treatment)
7,370,000
47 Alfred Sommer
(Vitamin A Therapy)
7,124,000
48 Baruch Blumberg
(Hepatitis B Vaccine)
6,335,000
49 Irving Millman
(Hepatitis B Vaccine)
6,335,000
50 Kenneth Murray
(Hepatitis B Vaccine)
6,335,000
51 Georgios Papanikolou
(Cervical Cancer Screening)
6,307,000
52 Aurel Babes
(Cervical Cancer Screening)
6,307,000
53 Herbert Traut
(Cervical Cancer Screening)
6,307,000
54 Akira Endo
(Statin Drugs)
5,868,000
55 Gertrude Elion
(Rational Drug Design)
5,438,000
56 George Hitchings
(Rational Drug Design)
5,438,000

Over 1 Million
Scientist Lives Saved
57 James Elam
(CPR)
4,760,000
58 James Jude
(CPR)
4,760,000
59 G. Guy Knickerbocker
(CPR)
4,760,000
60 William Kouwenhoven
(CPR)
4,760,000
61 Peter Safar
(CPR)
4,760,000
62 James Black
(Beta Blockers)
3,350,000
63 Vasilii Kolesov
(Bypass Surgery)
2,610,000
64 Vladimir Demikhov
(Bypass Surgery)
2,610,000
65 Luc Montagnier
(HIV Blood Test)
2,370,000
66 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
(Isolated AIDS Virus)
2,370,000
67 Bernard Belleau
(New AIDS Drug)
2,370,000
68 Gervais Dionne
(New AIDS Drug)
2,370,000
69 Francesco Bellini
(New AIDS Drug)
2,370,000
70 Nghe Nguyen-Ga
(New AIDS Drug)
2,370,000
71 Andre Briend
(Plumpy'nut to Fight Malnutrition)
2,320,000
72 Stafford Warren
(Mammogram)
1,670,000
73 Jacob Gershon-Cohen
(Mammogram)
1,670,000
74 Raul Leborgne
(Mammogram)
1,670,000
75 Charles Gros
(Mammogram)
1,670,000
76 Walter Vogel
(Mammogram)
1,670,000
77 Albert Salomon
(Mammogram)
1,670,000
78 Nils Bohlin
(Improved Seatbelt)
1,330,000
79 Lawrence Craven
(Aspirin Therapy for Heart Disease)
1,130,000
80 Paul Gibson
(Aspirin Therapy for Heart Disease)
1,130,000
81 Charles Hennekens
(Aspirin Therapy for Heart Disease)
1,130,000
82 Thomas Francis, Jr.
(Flu Vaccine)
1,010,000
83 Jonas Salk
(Polio Vaccine)
1,010,000
84 Albert Sabin
(Polio Vaccine)
1,010,000
85 Frederick Robbins
(Polio Vaccine)
1,000,000
86 Thomas Weller
(Polio Vaccine)
1,010,000

Over 500 Thousand

Scientist Lives Saved
87 Mary Ellen Avery
(Infant Surfactant Therapy)
840,000
88 John Clements
(Infant Surfactant Therapy)
840,000
89 Tetsuro Fujiwara
(Infant Surfactant Therapy)
840,000
90 Ancel Keys
(Linked Cholesterol & Diet)
820,000
91 Porter Anderson
(Hib Vaccine)
660,000
92 David Smith
(Hib Vaccine)
660,000
93 John Robbins
(Hib Vaccine)
660,000
94 Rachel Schneerson
(Hib Vaccine)
660,000
95 Alexander Wiener
(Rh Blood Factor & Infant Exchange Transfusion)
520,000
96 Ronald Finn
(Haemolytic Disease)
520,000

Over 50 Thousand

Scientist Lives Saved
97 Max Theiler
(Yellow Fever Vaccine)
300,000
98 Samuel Kountz
(Kidney Transplants)
227,000
99 Alfred Blalock
(Blue Baby Syndrome Surgery)
169,000
100 Vivien Thomas
(Blue Baby Syndrome Surgery)
169,000
101 Brian Druker
(Leukemia Drug Gleevec)
153,000
102 Nicholas Lydon
(Leukemia Drug Gleevec)
153,000
103 Henry Heimlich
(Heimlich Maneuver)
50,000
104 Patrick, Edward
(Heimlich Maneuver)
50,000

Over 10 Thousand

105 Charles Sawyers
(Leukemia Drug Sprycel)
11,000

The above numbers are rounded and updated annually. See the scientists' real time counters for continuously updated totals.

 

Professions

Inventor / Entrepreneur

Alexander Graham Bell
Using a telephone for help has saved many lives.

Salvino D'Armate
Eyeglasses.

Earle Dickson
Invented the Band-Aid.

Benjamin Franklin
Invented bifocal lenses.

King Camp Gillette
Invented the Safety Razor.

Dean Kamen
Inventor of the first Wearable Infusion Pump.

George William Manby
Fire in the house? You need an Extinguisher.

Garrett Morgan
Invented the Stop Light and Gas Mask.

Louis Renault
The mechanical genius behind the brakes on your car.

Percy Shaw
Invented Reflectors.

Rangaswamy Srinivasan
Improved the laser used in LASIK.


Geneticist

Alec Jeffreys
Discovered DNA Fingerprinting.

Janet Rowley
Made Cancer Diagnosis at the Molecular Level.

Jack Szostak
Telomerase - a step towards a cancer cure?


Neurologist

Rita Levi-Montalcini
World's Oldest Scientist.


Ophthalmologist / Eye Tech.

Jose Barrauquer
LASIK.

Patricia Bath
Cataract Removal and first female African-American to patent a medical invention.

Svyatoslav Fyodorov
First vision correction surgery.

Charles Kelman
---description---.

Kevin Tuohy
Contact Lenses.


Pharmacist

Benjamin Green
Sunscreen.


Physiology

Adolf Fick
Invented Contact Lenses.

Donald Metcalf
Colony Stimulating Factors - a boon to cancer treatment.


Physicist

George Airy
Astigmatism Correction.

Mani Lal Bhaumik
LASIK.

Allan Cormack
CAT Scans.

Christian Doppler
Discovered the Doppler Effect.

Rosalind Franklin
The important partner in DNAs discovery you never hear about.

Louis-Sebastien Lenormand
---description---.

Wilhelm Rontgen
X-Rays Inventor.



 

Click for Top 10 Lists


  1. Choose a group below
  2. Read about Lifesavers with something in common
  3. Be amazed

Lifesavers' Groups
Table Of Contents
Lifesavers in the Book
Lifesavers with a "Z" in Name
Women Lifesavers
19th Century Lifesavers
Black Lifesavers
Hispanic Lifesavers
Senior Lifesavers (in their 60s)
Lifesavers, Nutritn, Hydrtn, Agricultr
Lifesavers, surfactant & premies
Lifesavers, Cervical Cancer
Lifesavers, Leukemia
Lifesavers who developed insulin
Lifesavers, Coronary Bypass Surgery
Lifesavers who developed CPR
Lifesavers: Mammograms
Lifesavers: Aspirin
Lifesavers: Chlorine
Lifesavers: Penicillin
Professions
Biochemist
Biologist
Chemist
Engineer
Geneticist
Immunologist
Inventor / Entrepreneur
Laboratory
Literary
Microbiology
Neurologist
Nutritionist
Odd Jobs
Ophthalmologist / Eye Tech.
Pathology
Pharmacist
Physician - Discovery Pre-1960
Physician - Discovery Post-1960
Physicist
Physiology
Surgeon
Virologist
Vaccines &
Viruses
Lifesavers: Vaccines and Viruses
Polio, Measles, Influenza
Whooping Cough, Diphtheria, Tetanus
Smallpox
Rabies, Yellow Fever
Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae type b)
AIDS
Hepatitis B
Tuberculosis



19th Century Science Heroes

Click on the slide!

Paul Ehrlich

Developed the commercial serum therapy against diphtheria

A legend in immunology

More...
Click on the slide!

Robert Koch

Koch was an ingenious innovator

Isolated the bacterium that causes tuberculosis

More...
Click on the slide!

Edward Jenner

Did earliest work on the smallpox vaccine

Gave birth to the concept of vaccination

More...
Click on the slide!

Joseph Lister

Lister ushered in the era of sterile surgical practices

The "Father of Modern Surgery"

More...
Click on the slide!

Louis Pasteur

Pasteur was responsible for several major scientific discoveries

A multi-faceted scientific genius

More...
Click on the slide!

John Snow

developed the first method of mapping the spread of epidemics

The "Father of Epidemiology"

More...
Frontpage Slideshow (version 2.0.0) - Copyright © 2006-2008 by JoomlaWorks

Click the thumbnail to jump to the scientist.  Click the large image, scientist's name or "read more" to go to the scientist's page.



Lifesavers in the Book

Scientists Greater than Einstein


Alfred Sommer
Sommer's vitamin A treatment saves lives for less than five cents per year.
David Nalin
Nalin's key insight led to a "simple solution" that has saved millions.
Paul Muller
Muller's DDT rid the American South of malaria.
Karl Landsteiner
Landsteiner's discovery led to the first safe blood transfusions.
Bill Foege
Foege's "surveillance and containment" strategy led to the eradication of smallpox.
Howard Florey
Florey's team created the very first antibiotic-penicillin.
Akira Endo
Endo's statin drugs are used by millions to lower cholesterol.
John Enders
Enders revolutionized virology, even though he began this pursuit after the age of fifty.
Norman Borlaug
Borlaug's disease-resistant wheat feeds millions.
Frederick Banting
Banting's discovery led to the mass production of insulin.


Lifesavers With a "Z" in Name

Andreas Gruentzig
Developed angioplasty - starting with homemade materials at his kitchen table.
Samuel Katz
Tested vaccine on himself to prove it was safe.
Samuel Kountz
Before Kountz' technique few kidney transplant patients survived.
Christian Zoeller
Developed the vaccine to prevent and control tetanus.


Women Lifesavers

Mary Ellen Avery
Her crucial discovery led the fight against  Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Identified the virus that led to the HIV test.
Patricia Bath
First female African-American to patent a medical invention..
Elizabeth Blackburn
Discovered Telomerase.
Gerty Cori
Discovered how the body breaks down Glycogen for energy.
Grace Eldering
Eldering survived the deadly whooping cough disease at age five and went on to create its first vaccine.
Gertrude Elion
Her Rational Drug Design revolutionized pharmaceutical research.
Rosalind Franklin
The important partner in DNAs discovery you never hear about.
Carol Greider
Discovered Telomeres.
Ann Holloway
Was John Enders' "most able technician and associate" in the search for a measles vaccine.
Pearl Kendrick
Kendrick was tenacious in her pursuit of a cure for whooping cough.
Cindy Lamb
Helped to develop MADD.
Mary Lasker
Founder of The Lasker Foundation.
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Discovered Nerve Growth Factor and still works at the age of 101.
Candy Lightner
Founder of MADD.
Anna Mitus
Mitus' expertise was critical in the development of the measles vaccine.
Rachel Schneerson
Her vaccines fought Hib disease, the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children.


Black Lifesavers

Patricia Bath
First female African-American to patent a medical invention.
Charles Drew
Extended the ability to store blood donations for longer periods of time.
Percy Julian
Cortisone for Arthritis - then Glaucoma Treatment.
Samuel Kountz
Before Kountz' technique few kidney transplant patients survived.
Garrett Morgan
Invented the Stop Light and Gas Mask.
Vivien Thomas
His revolutionary technique saved babies with defective hearts.
Daniel Hale Williams
Performed first successful open heart surgery.


Hispanic Lifesavers

Jose Barraquer
Born in Barcelona, Spain, he developed the breakthrough eye technology LASIK.
Baruj Benacerraf
Born in Venezuela, he discovered the Major Histocompatibility Complex.
Luis Leloir
A French born Argentine researcher discovered the cause of Galactosemia.
Cesar Milstein
Born in Argentina, he helped develop a technique for producing Monoclonal Antibodies.
Severo Ochoa
Born in Spain, he discovered mechanisms in the synthesis of RNA.
Emil Unanue
Born in Cuba, he is associated with Major Histocompatibility Complex.

Seniors
Vasilii Kolesov (60)
First to use sutures in coronary artery bypass surgery.
John Enders (61)
Enders revolutionized virology, even though he began this pursuit after the age of fifty.
Louis Pasteur (63)
A scientific genius, founder of Germ Theory, Vaccination, Microbiology and Pasteurization.
Bernard Belleau (64)
Invented new AIDS drug with far fewer side effects.
Lawrence Craven (67)
Showed aspirin busts blood clots and saves lives.


Lifesavers in Nutrition,

Hydration and

Agriculture

Norman Borlaug
The "Father of the Green Revolution," developing high-yield disease-resistant wheat.
Andre Briend
Developed Plumpy'nut, a calorie-dense eanut-based food used to fight famine.
Robert Phillips
His early experiments laid the groundwork for Oral Rehydration Therapy.
David Nalin
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.
Richard Cash
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.
Norbert Hirschhorn
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.
David Sachar
Developed Oral Rehydration Therapy, the most effective means to fight dehydrating diseases.
Linn Enslow
Used chlorine to purify water, the most significant public health advance of the 20th century.
Abel Wolman
Used chlorine to purify water, the most significant public health advance of the 20th century.
Ancel Keys
First scientist to link diet and cholesterol.
Alfred Sommer
Sommer's vitamin A treatment saves lives for less than five cents per year.

Lifesavers: Surfactant
Mary Ellen Avery
Completed research on surfactants that saved babies with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
John Clements
Completed research on surfactants that saved babies with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Tetsuro Fujiwara
Developed a successful surfactant delivery method to treat Respiratory Distress Syndrome.


Lifesavers:

Cervical Cancer


Aurel Babes
Revolutionized the field of cervical cancer detection.
Georgios Ppanikolaou
His Pap Smear test has saved millions of lives.
Herbert Traut
Developed a critical test to detect cervical cancer.

Lifesavers: Leukemia
Brian Druker
Developed Gleevec, a new-generation drug that targeted leukemia's mutated gene.
Nicholas Lydon
Developed Gleevec, a new-generation drug that targeted leukemia's mutated gene.
Charles Sawyers
Developed the next generation drug, Sprycel, for patients who resistant to Gleevec.


Lifesavers: Insulin

Frederick Banting
Discovered the first true miracle drug: insulin.
Charles Best
Joined Banting's insulin research team based on the flip of a coin.
James "Bert" Collip
Developed insulin into a useable human drug.
J.J.R. (John) Macleod
He was the scientist who named insulin.

Lifesavers:

Bypass Surgery
Vladimir Demikhov
His experiments made coronary artery bypass surgery possible.
Vasilii Kolesov
First to use the suture technique in coronary artery bypass surgery.

CPR
Peter Safar
The Father of CPR, taught regular people to be lifesavers.
James Elam
Spearheaded the development of Resusci-Anne, a life-like manikin to teach CPR.
James Jude
Proved that chest compressions, using the hands, were sufficient to extend life in emergencies.
G. Guy Knickerbocker
Proved that chest compressions, using the hands, were sufficient to extend life in emergencies.
William Kouwenhoven
Proved that chest compressions, using the hands, were sufficient to extend life in emergencies.


Lifesavers:

Mammograms


Jacob Gershon-Cohen
First advocate for using mammograms to detect breast cancer.
Stafford Warren
A pioneer in breast cancer surgery, using fluoroscopes to distinguish cancerous tissue.
Charles Gros
His techniques greatly enhanced mammogram's effectiveness.
Raul Leborgne
His breast compression technique enhanced mammogram images.
Albert Salomon
He was the very first to use x-rays to study breast cancer.
Walter Vogel
He refined mammograms to enhance breast cancer diagnosis.


Lifesavers: Aspirin

Paul Gibson
Laid the foundation for "an aspirin a day keeps the cardiologist away" treatment.
Charles Hennekens
Led the first significant clinical trial showing aspirin prevents heart attacks.
Lawrence Craven
Showed "aspirin busts blood clots," saves lives.

Lifesavers: Chlorine
Linn Enslow
Developed the most significant public health advance of the 20th century.
Abel Wolman
Developed the most significant public health advance of the 20th century.


Lifesavers: Penicillin

Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin, after returning from vacation and finding an unusual mold growing in his culture plates.
Howard Florey
The real brain behind the discovery of penicillin.
Ernst Chain
He refined penicillin, allowing for mass production of the world's first antibiotic.
Norman Heatley
He engineered the methods to grow sufficient quantities of penicillin for testing and refinement.

Lifesavers who Worked

with

Vaccines and Viruses

Polio, Measles,

Influenza
John Enders
Revolutionized virology - did pivotal early polio vaccine work and developed the measles vaccine.
Thomas Weller
With Enders, Revolutionized virology - did pivotal early polio vaccine work.
Frederick Robbins
With Enders, Revolutionized virology - did pivotal early polio vaccine work.
Jonas Salk
Developed the first vaccine to fight against the epidemic killer polio virus.
Thomas Francis Jr
Influenza and polio vaccine - taught Jonas Salk critical vaccine development technique.
Albert Sabin
Developed the "live" polio vaccine, given on a sugar cube, used throughout the world.
Samuel Katz
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.
Thomas Peebles
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.
Kevin McCarthy
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.
Milan Milovanovic
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.
Anna Mitus
Crucial member of the John Ender's team that developed the landmark measles vaccine.
Ann Holloway
Was Enders' "most able technician and associate" in the search for a measles vaccine.
Maurice Hilleman
Reformulated Enders' vaccine, making it commercially available worldwide.

Whooping Cough,

Diphtheria and Tetanus
Pearl Kendrick
Kendrick was tenacious in her pursuit of a cure for whooping cough.
Grace Eldering
Eldering survived the deadly whooping cough disease at age five.
Emil von Behring
Originally intent on the priesthood, von Behring developed therapies against diphtheria and tetanus.
Paul Ehrlich
A legend in immunology - Ehrlich developed diphtheria therapy.
Christian Zoeller
Zoeller used formaldehyde to develop his lifesaving tetanus vaccine.
Shibasaburo Kitasato
"On loan to Germany," developed first effective therapies against diphtheria and tetanus.
Gaston Ramon
His ingenious techniques allowed diphtheria and tetanus vaccines to be used safely worldwide.

Smallpox
Bill Foege
Devised the ingenuous strategy
to eradicate smallpox.
Leslie Collier
Perfected the freeze-drying method of producing the vaccine, making mass vaccination possible.
Aaron Ismach
Developed the Jet Injector, capable of vaccinating 1,000 people per hour.
Benjamin Rubin
Created the bifurcated needle, a simple device making worldwide vaccination possible.
Edward Jenner
Developed the first vaccine against smallpox, using the cowpox from a milkmaid's hands.

Rabies, Yellow Fever
Louis Pasteur
Developed the rabies vaccine, using the saliva he collected from a rabid dog.
Max Theiler
Refined the Yellow Fever vaccine, making it possible to mass produce the lifesaving treatment.

Hib Disease

(Haemophilus influenza type b)
David Smith
Hib disease in the U.S. has declined by 99 percent since the introduction of his Hib vaccine.
Porter Anderson
Hib disease in the U.S. has declined by 99 percent since the introduction of his Hib vaccine.
John Robbins
Made the breakthrough discovery that allowed the Hib vaccine to protect children under 18 months.
Rachel Schneerson
Made the breakthrough discovery that allowed the Hib vaccine to protect children under 18 months.

AIDS

Acquired Immune

Deficiency Syndrome
Luc Montagnier
Developed the blood test to detect HIV, the underlying cause of AIDS.
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Identified the virus that led to the HIV test.
Gervais Dionne
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.
Bernard Belleau
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.
Francesco Bellini
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.
Nghe Nguyen-Ga
Co-developed the effective AIDS drug 3TC, which had fewer side effects than AZT.

Hepatitis B
Kenneth Murray
Developed the vaccine against hepatitis B - his was the first genetically engineered vaccine.
Baruch Blumberg
Discovered the antigen that causes hepatitis B; co-developed the vaccine to fight against it.
Irving Millman
His expertise in microbiology was critical in co-developing the hepatitis B vaccine.

Tuberculosis
Robert Koch
Discovered the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, the disease originally known as "consumption."
Karel Styblo
Developed revolutionary Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) protocol to fight epidemics.