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(dob - )
Born in the United States
Year of Discovery: 1958
His Monkey Business Led to the Development of the Measles Vaccine
Sometimes it's the little things that pay the biggest dividends. Kevin McCarthy, a bacteriologist, spent his professional career studying single-celled microorganisms. His work was key in the discovery of a measles vaccine that ultimately saved millions of lives. McCarthy was a lecturer in bacteriology at the University of Liverpool in London. In 1954 he joined fellow scientists John Enders, Thomas Peebles, and others to work on development of a vaccine to fight measles. As other team members worked on various cultures of the virus, McCarthy turned his attention to tests involving monkeys. He first tested the monkeys, and separated out those who showed evidence of a prior spontaneous infection with the measles virus. He then inoculated the monkeys who had not had the disease before (were seronegative) with the team's passaged measles virus-these monkeys consistently developed active cases of measles. McCarthy's findings confirmed the viability of the passaged virus and were a significant step in the ultimate development of the vaccine.
Measles is caused by a virus and is one of the most contagious diseases known. The virus normally grows in the cells lining the back of the throat and those lining the lungs. The first sign of infection is a high fever lasting one to seven days. During this initial stage the patient may develop multiple symptoms, including a runny nose, cough, red and watery eyes, and small white spots inside the cheeks. A rash develops after several days, typically beginning on the face and upper neck, and then spreading to the hands and feet. Poorly nourished children are at an increased risk of contracting a severe case of measles, especially those who have a vitamin A deficiency or whose immune system is compromised. Childhood deaths are usually caused by the complications associated with measles, rather than by the disease itself. The most serious complications include blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea, ear infections and severe respiratory infections--such as pneumonia, which is the most common cause of death associated with measles. Despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine for the past several decades, measles continues to be a leading cause of death among children in the developing world. It's estimated that 242,000 people, many of them children, died from measles in 2006. But, vaccination has played a major role, with an estimated 478 million children having received the measles vaccine between 2000 and 2006. As a result, there has been a significant reduction in estimated global measles' deaths. Overall, global measles mortality decreased by 68% between 2000 and 2006, with the largest decreases occurring in Africa, where measles cases and deaths fell by 91%.
Introduction by Tim Anderson
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action.org.uk article on the rubella vaccine, referencing McCarthy:
American Journal of Public Health article on measles research co-authored by McCarthy (pdf):
The Journal of Immunology article on measles research co-authored by McCarthy:
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The Science Behind the Discovery
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