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(dob - )
Born in the United States
Year of Discovery: 1958
Key Part of Measles Vaccine Team
Ann Holloway had a bird's eye view of measles research. A longtime associate of John Enders, he eventually came to see Holloway as his "most able technician and associate." Prior to her work on the measles vaccine, Holloway helped Enders develop the polio vaccine, for which Enders won the Nobel Prize. Holloway teamed with Dr. Arne Svedmyr to develop a diagnostic tool, known as a compliment fixation test, to assess the activity of polio antibodies. As other team members went their separate ways, Holloway stayed on and joined Enders in pursuing the development of a measles vaccine. After they successfully isolated the measles virus they began the arduous task of passaging the virus through human cells. The process was painstakingly slow but, in the end, her persistence paid off. Holloway's contributions were critical to the successful development of the live-virus vaccine.This accomplishment was more satisfying, and more socially significant, than his previous Nobel Prize winning work on the poliomyelitis virus according to John Enders.
Measles is caused by a virus and is one of the most contagious diseases known. The virus normally grows in the cells lining the back of the throat and those lining the lungs. The first sign of infection is a high fever lasting one to seven days. During this initial stage the patient may develop multiple symptoms, including a runny nose, cough, red and watery eyes, and small white spots inside the cheeks. A rash develops after several days, typically beginning on the face and upper neck, and then spreading to the hands and feet. Poorly nourished children are at an increased risk of contracting a severe case of measles, especially those who have a vitamin A deficiency or whose immune system is compromised. Childhood deaths are usually caused by the complications associated with measles, rather than by the disease itself. The most serious complications include blindness, encephalitis (an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord), severe diarrhea, ear infections and severe respiratory infections--such as pneumonia, which is the most common cause of death associated with measles. Despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine for the past several decades, measles continues to be a leading cause of death among children in the developing world. It's estimated that 242,000 people, many of them children, died from measles in 2006. But, vaccination has played a major role, with an estimated 478 million children having received the measles vaccine between 2000 and 2006. As a result, there has been a significant reduction in estimated global measles deaths. Overall, global measles mortality decreased by 68% between 2000 and 2006, with the largest decreases occurring in
Introduction by Tim Anderson
Table of ContentsIntroduction
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Key Experiment or Research
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Quotes About the Scientist
Fun Trivia About The Science
The Science Behind the Discovery
Science Discovery Timeline
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Growing Pathogens in Tissue Cultures, by Weller, mentions Holloway:
Growing Pathogens in Tissue Cultures
A journal article on the development of the measles vaccine, co-authored by Holloway:
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The Science Behind the Discovery
Links to Information on the Science